µg/L

Micrograms per litre. One microgram is a unit of mass equivalent to one millionth of a gram (0.000001 g).

Accreditation

Assessment by a recognized body ofthe technical competence of a laboratory conducting specific analysis as laid down in the Standard, or a collecting agency where both collection procedures and on-site screenings are performed.

Adulterant

A substance used to compromise, or attempt to compromise, the integrity of a urine specimen by dilution, addition of additives or substitution.

Amphetamine type substances (Sympathomimetic amines)

Amphetamine, benzylpiperazine, ephedrine, methylamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA), phentermine and pseudoephedrine.

Analyte

An analyte or component is a substance or chemical constituent that is of interest in an analytical procedure.

AS/NZS 4380:2008

Australian and New Zealand Standard that describes the procedures for specimen collection and the detection and quantification of drugs of abuse in urine.

Automatic Test

The unit automatically takes the sample at the proper time while the subject is blowing, using a mouthpiece. In a properly calibrated fuel cell unit, these tests are quantitatively accurate to specifications.

B.A.T. – "Breath Alcohol Technician"

One trained and certified to conduct Evidential Workplace alcohol tests per DOT regulations and Manufacturers’ equipment operator guidelines.

BAC or BrAC

Blood Alcohol Content / Breath Alcohol Content (U.S.A. use) – terms have become generally interchangeable in daily use. Grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath: 0.1 BAC = 0.1 grams of alcohol in 210 liters of breath. Equivalent to 0.1 parts of alcohol per 1,000 parts of blood.

Benzodiazepines

Alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, temazepam and/or their metabolites.

Blind testing

Testing where the true result is unknown to the operator at the time of the analysis.

Calibration standard

A urine to which has been added a reference compound at a known concentration for the purpose of defining the calibration and linearity ofthe analytical method.

Cannabinoids

Any number of urinary metabolites of tetrahydrocaninabinol.

Cannabis Metabolite

l l-nor-delta-9-tetraliydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid.

Chain-of-custody

A series of procedures to account for the integrity of each specimen by tracking its handling and storage from point of specimen coìlection to final disposal ofthe urine.

A form to be used from time of collection ofthe specimen to its receipt bythe laboratory as well as dispatch between laboratories. Thereafter, appropriate documentation accounts for the urine or aliquots within the laboratory.

Cocaine metabolites

Benzoyl ecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester.

Confirmatory Test

A test undertaken following a positive result on initial screening in order to confirm or deny the initial result. In the case of drug testing often undertaken on GC/MS equipment.

DUI or DWI

Driving Under the Influence (or) Driving While Intoxicated.

EBT

Common acronym for "Evidential Breath Tester".

Forensic Use Only

Forensic Use Only devices are not intended to be used for any in vitro diagnostic applications and are clearly labeled and marked as such. These devices can be sold to court systems, police departments, probation/parole, juvenile detention, prisons, jails, correction centers and similar law enforcement entities or to laboratories performing forensic testing for these entities. These devices are not FDA approved.

GC/MS

Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. A laboratory instrument that uses gas flow over a large distance to separate the components of a sample, which are then measured using mass spectrometry to determine their exact composition. Commonly employed for confirmatory drug testing following initial drug screening.

Metabolise

The biological process by which a compound is broken down into its constituent parts (metabolites).

Parameter

See analyte.

PBT

Common acronym for "Portable Breath Tester".

QAP

Quality Assurance Plan. The QAP specifies the inspection, maintenance, and calibration requirements and intervals for the equipment, taking into account numerous factors. It requires users of EBTs to ensure that inspection, maintenance and calibration of their equipment is performed by the manufacturer or by individuals certified by the manufacturer or by a state agency.

Response Time

The time necessary for an instrument to register a result after a sample has been introduced for analysis.

Recovery Time

After a breath sample has been taken, the time necessary for an instrument to reset and be ready for the next test.

Screening Test

An initial test taken for the presence of drugs or the presence and level of alcohol. Results are typically not used in courts. Sometimes referred to in informal discourse as "probable cause".

Evidential Test

A test taken following strict procedures and using certified equipment that may in certain circumstances be used for disciplinary action and/or in court.

Calibration

To set the measurement of a Breath Testing Device to an established standard response level.

Calibration Check

To check and verify the accuracy of the instrument calibration. Also known as "External Calibration Check", "Accuracy Check", or "Verification".

Wet Bath

Liquid bath method of providing an alcohol standard for either the calibration of an instrument or for a calibration check an alcohol standard for calibration or calibration check.

Manual Test

The operator manually triggers when the sample is taken using a mouthpiece. In a properly calibrated fuel cell unit, these tests are quantitatively accurate to specifications.

Mouthpiece

Plastic tube attached to a breath testing device for tested subject to exhale into – one used for each test for sanitary reasons. Also known as "straw", "stick", "tube", "blow tube", "blow stick", or "breath tube".

Passive Test

No mouthpiece is used. While the subject simply blows toward the unit, the operator manually triggers when the sample is taken.

Residual Mouth Alcohol

Alcohol retained in the mouth for a short period of time following consumption of an alcohol-containing beverage or other substance. Certain products other than beverages contain alcohol, i.e: some mouthwashes, breath freshener sprays, and cough syrups. These substances can cause inaccurate test results. However, by waiting 15 minutes before performing a breath test, mouth alcohol dissipates from the subject’s breath.

Semi-conductor Device

Less expensive alcohol measurement device using a semi-conductor gas sensor, sometimes referred to as a Taguchi cell

Fuel Cell Device

Compact and highly accurate PBT’s widely used in law enforcement, evidential workplace testing, corrections, and other professional applications. Alcohol-specific.

Infrared Device

Larger, more expensive, non-portable table-top EBTs generally used at police stations to test DUI suspects. Highly accurate. Alcohol-specific

SAMHSA

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). A Department of Health and Human Services (USA) division of workplace programs. SAMHSA provides guidelines on drug testing and best practice.

Zero Tolerance

Term used to indicate that any level of alcohol is significant (or any level above a specified threshold).